Later Chronology

(this page is incomplete)

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Sixth Century Justinian, Byzantine Emperor, builds the monastery in the Sinai now called St. Catherine’s.
Seventh to Eighth Centuries

641/2 Arab armies conquer Egypt
Fustat (near present day Cairo) founded; replaces Alexandria as capital of Egypt


707 Arabic replaces Greek as official language of Egypt
early 8th century, Arabic "Inspirational coppers" replace Byzantine coin types

Later Developments

861 end of tax exemption for monks and clerics

969 New capital founded , later named Al-Qahira (Cairo).

11th to 12th centuries, gradual movement of the Patriarchate from Alexandria to Cairo

13th Century and later, major painting program in Monastery of St. Antony near the Red Sea.

13th-14th Centuries, St. Antony's Monastery is a center for production of Christian Arabic literature that circulates throughout Near Eastern Christian communities. .

Later Twentieth Century to present day

Pope Cyril VI 1959-1971

  • Encouraged use of Coptic in the liturgy
  • Supervised foundation of Coptic Churches outside Egypt
  • Promoted revival of Coptic monasticism

Pope Shenouda III 1971-

  • Continues his predecessor’s policies
  • Promotes ecumenism: visited Vatican 1973